Study Sheet on the Scientific Revolution, The Political Revolution and the Enlightenment


The Scientific Revolution:


1.   Define the scientific method.

2.   How did the Renaissance interest in perspective contribute to the scientific revolution?

3.   What was the significance of Copernicus’ heliocentric theory?

4.   How did Galileo’s discoveries confirm Copernicus’s theories and change our understanding of the nature of the heavens?

5.   What are Newton’s three laws of motion?

6.   What is inductive reasoning??  

7.   What is deductive reasoning?

8.   How did Descartes prove the existence of God?

9.   How did Spinoza conceive of God?


Revolution in Political Thought:


10.  What are the key features of the emerging modern state?

11.  According to Machiavelli, why should a leader avoid morality in his administration of government?

12.  What was Hobbes’ vision of human nature?

13.  What is Hobbes’ version of the social contract?

14.  Why was an absolute monarchy necessary in Hobbes’ state?

15.  What was Locke’s vision of human nature?

16.  What was Locke’s theory of natural rights?

17.  Under what conditions does a citizen have the right to rebel, according to Locke?


The Enlightenment


18.  How did the philosophes believe they would inaugurate an enlightened age?

19.  How did the philosophes apply Newton’s discovery of universal laws governing motion to the problems of society and government?

20.  What were the deists’ religious beliefs?

21.  What was Locke’s theory of epistemology, the way humans learn?

22.  How does Locke’s epistemology refute the Church’s idea of original sin?

23.  What reform movements were inaugurated by the philosphes? How did they believe a utopian society could be created?