Euro Civ 12/10/04

Absolutism v Constitutionalism: Hobbes v Locke : Reading Guide

Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651)

1. Why, in a state of nature – before government existed, was there war – every man against every man?

2. Why – in a state of nature and, therefore, of war – would people eschew hard work?

3. Memorize: “And the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short…”

4. Why is it true that “as long as this natural Right of every man to everything endureth, there can be no security to any man”?

5. So what can we do to provide security for ourselves?

6. Describe Hobbes’ covenant (social contract).

7. Why does the government have to be sovereign, according to Hobbes’ logic?

8. What would Hobbes think of Bossuet or James I?

Locke’s Second Treatise (1690)

1. How does Locke alter Hobbes’ view of the power of a state created under the social contract?

2. According to Locke, what should happen when a government destroys rather than preserves “life, liberty and property”?

3. According to Locke, why should rebellions be pretty rare?